Scientists from India performed an experiment to synthesize castor oil based acrylated derivatives to be used as potential lubricant basestocks. The acylated derivatives of castor oil, castor oil fatty acid methyl and 2-ethylhexyl esters were synthesized using different anhydrides in about 90–95% yield. All the products were structurally characterized using NMR and IR spectral data.
Results showed that castor oil could have use in hydraulic and metal working fluids and other industrial fluids with their wide range of properties.
Recent research shows production of jet fuel from ricinoleic acid methyl ester.
Experiments conducted earlier have shown the possibility of producing jet fuel from castor oil or hydro processing castor oil.
Now scientists from China have found that jet fuel could be produced from castor oil derived ricinoleic acid methyl ester. A unique hydroxyl group in the ricinoleic acid chain induced a special thermal rearrangement reaction in medium chain fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and heptanal formation. This reaction was used as a starting point for the production of jet fuel.
Results showed that the carbon selectivity in the castor oil to jet fuel process was as high as 90%.
Researchers from Finland have found a method to produce novel castor oil segmented thermoplastic polyurethanes which have controlled mechanical properties.
Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is an elastomer that is fully thermoplastic. Like all thermoplastic elastomers, TPU is elastic and melt-processable. TPU is a linear segmented block copolymer composed of hard and soft segments. The hard segment can be either aromatic or aliphatic. The soft segment can either be a polyether or polyester type, depending on the application.
The new study shows that it is possible to produce thermoplastic polyurethanes using castor oil via polyaddition approach where the formation of prepolymers needs to be carried out with the addition of small amount of castor oil and excess of diisocyanate in the very first step. This is followed by the addition of the other polyols and finally a low molecular weight chain extender.
Results showed that the synthesized polyurethanes exhibited good biocompatibility and high transparency.
Recent study shows that a two-step mediation of castor oil could overcome the problem of polyaddition threshold of castor oil during polyurethane formation.
The study has been conducted by scientists from India who have found that the mediation facilitates formation of polyurethane systems directly from castor oil without the need for triricinolein chain extension or the use of supplementary hydroxyl compounds.
The process involves refluxing castor oil with n-butyl lithium in the presence of a solvent followed by water addition.
Results showed that the mediation introduces two new compounds in castor oil namely, a lithiated diglyceride and a lithium salt of fatty acid. Characterization studies of the newly synthesized polyurethane were also carried out.
Polyanhydrides are a class of biodegradable polymers that are usually unstable and prone to hydrolytic degradation and depolymerisation. They need to be stored at -20°C, packed under inert atmosphere until use.
Now researchers from Israel have found a new stable polyanhydride obtained from sebacic acid and ricinoleic acid. The new stable polyanhydride was synthesized with alternating ester anhydride structure that is stable at 25 °C for over 18 months. The copolymer is also stable in chloroform solution and under γ-irradiation.
Recent study shows production of wood adhesives from castor oil.
Commonly used wood adhesives were anima (hide) glue, urea-formaldehyde resin adhesives, resorcinol-formaldehyde, phenol-formaldehyde, polyurethane, etc.
Now scientists from Iran have conducted an experiment to produce polyester polyols, which is an important compound in polymeric polyurethane adhesives, from castor oil. The polyester polyols were synthesized condensation polymerization of different dicarboxylic acids with castor oil.
Characterization studies were also carried out to determine the shear strength value in various conditions such as cold water, hot water, acid and alkali solutions.
Recent study has found new castor oil based polymeric surfactants.
Polymeric surfactants are polymeric substances which tend to reduce surface tension of a liquid in which it is dissolved.
Now scientists from China have conducted an experiment to produce castor oil based polymeric surfactants. Dehydrated castor oil was epoxidized using phosphoric acid and acetic acid to produce epoxidized castor oil. Ring opening polymerization method was followed with to produce polymerized epoxidized castor oil (PECO) and hydrolysed PECO (HPECO).
Characterization studies showed that castor oil based polymeric surfactants exhibited high efficiency to reduce the surface tension of water.
Recent study finds castor oil sourced copolymers for surface coating applications.
Scientists from India have performed the experiment where acrylic polyols comprising castor oil derived hydroxy functional acrylic copolymers were synthesized by co-reacting modified hydroxy functional castor oil with a variety of acrylic monomers. Solution polymerization method was followed in the presence of an inhibitor.
The synthesized resins when cured with suitable amino-resin cross-linkers provided tough, glossy and weather resistant coatings.
Recent study has found a new source of biodiesel from castor oil which has less viscosity than the original castor oil.
Castor oil cannot be used as such for biodiesel production due to its high viscosity. Hence scientists from Singapore have found an alternative method to produce low viscosity biodiesel from castor oil.
By chemical modification of ricinolein in castor oil and methyl Ricinoleate, new products called ketone-containing glycerides were obtained. These ketone containing triglycerides were used for the production of biodiesel.
The biodiesel obtained by this method was found to have low viscosity.
Thus, vehicles can now run with a fuel which has less viscosity.
Here’s an interesting derivative possibility of an antibacterial product from ricinoleic acid, a derivative of castor oil.
Contamination is a big issue in any environment. It affects each and every stage in all the processes we do from manufacturing a product to its maintenance (shelf life). To control contamination, a suitable compound with a high antibacterial activity is to be added in an ongoing process.
A well-known example of compounds with antibacterial activity are naturally occurring phenolic compounds.
Now scientists from India have developed 7 novel ricinoleic acid glycosides having antibacterial activity using Koenigs–Knorr glycosylation reaction. On the whole, 28 ricinoleic acid glycosides were developed and their antibacterial activities were analysed. Seven of them were found to show promising wide spectrum antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria.
Among the 7 compounds, two compounds namely mannopyranosyl- and the arabinofuranosyl derivatives were found to be effective against various non-clinical/clinical, overexpressed/resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and other gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. It was found that the presence of sugar and its structure and the methyl ester protection of the carboxylic moiety of ricinoleic acid are responsible for these compounds to be bioactive.
Now industries looking for other potential compounds with antibacterial activity could go for these ricinoleic acid glycosides.
Wish to know more about Ricinoleic Acid – see here. Or other castor derivatives – see here.