Scientists from Nigeria performed an experiment to analyse the effect of period of fermentation on the nutrients of castor oil seeds. Castor oil seed was dehulled, boiled and wrapped in a banana leaf. The wrapped seed was kept in a basket and allowed to ferment for four days. The package was unwrapped daily to remove 250g of fermenting cotyledon and dried at 60°C to terminate the fermentation process.
Results showed that the fermented castor oil seeds exhibited increase in moisture, crude protein, crude fibre, carbohydrate, potassium and zinc. The lysine content also significantly increased on the fourth day.
Scientists performed an experiment to analyze the effect of catalysis pyrolysis of castor seed on the yield of oil. Catalytic pyrolysis was carried out at 400°C for different ratios of catalyst to biomass using zeolite as catalyst.
Results showed that compared to thermal pyrolysis of castor seed, catalytic pyrolysis decreased the yield of oil and that the bio oil contained compounds with carbon chain length in the range of C4-C24 that is similar to most of the fuels used.
While India currently average about 1 T/hectare per year for castor seeds, there is potential for much higher yield.
As part of the research to increase yields, efforts have been going on in India for high yielding varieties of castor.
The table below shows the various high yielding castor varieties produced by different states across India.
||Aruna, Bhagya, Sowbhagya, Kranti (PCS-4), Jwala, DCS-9
||(Jyothi), Kiran (PCS-136), Haritha (PCS-124).
||Kalpi-6, T-3, T-4
||GAUC-1, VI-9, S-20, J-1andGCH 7
||CH-1, GCH-2, GCH-3, GCH6, SHB-145, GCH-7 and(SKP 84 x SKI 215
||TMV-1, TMV-2, TMV-3, TMV-5, SA-1, SA-2, TMV-4,Jyothi, CO-1
||Jwala (48-1), RC-8, Jyothi
|For all states
||DCH-32 (Deepti)DCH-177 (Deepak)GCH-4, GCH-5, DCH 519
|For entire country
||M 574 x DCS 78
Here is a brief blog post which helps the castor farmers to understand the do’s and do not’s while cultivating castor. Article excerpts from http://www.ikisan.com
- For proper tilth and good seed bed preparation, plough the land immediately after pre-monsoon showers followed by 2-3 harrowings with blade harrow after rains.
- Farmers are required to purchase the hybrid seed from authorised registered seed agent and ensure its viability
- However, they need not renew seed stock of their improved varieties every year.
- Using certified seed once obtained from authorised agencies/sources, interested farmers can easily meet their requirement of quality seeds and maintain the varieties for atleast 3-4 years without any appreciable deterioration.
- Seed may be treated with Thiram or Bavistin 3g/kg seed to protect from seed borne diseases like Alternaria leaf blight, seedling blight and wilt.
- A plant population of 55,500/ha has been found to be optimum for rainfed castor in all regions
- For achieving required plant stands in dry lands, a seed rate of 10-15 kg/ha is adequate depending on seed size.
- The optimum date of sowing for castor in Andhra Pradesh is first fortnight of June.
- Plough with single seed drill help in placement of seed at appropriate moist zone and ensures better germination and growth.
- As far as possible place the seed in a moist zone 10-12cm below the soil surface to ensure proper moist soil seed contact for sufficiently long period and thereby obtain good germination.
Read more from here – http://www.ikisan.com/Crop%20Specific/Eng/links/ap_castorCrop%20Establishment.shtml
Sugarcane farmers of Andiyur village in Erode district, Tamilnadu, India use castor solution to trap pests that invades the root system of the crops and the plants. Farmers there face a recurring pest problem called white grub that makes it difficult for them to harvest a good yield. Managing the pest proves difficult for the groundnut cultivators as the grub lives under the soil and its life cycle takes a year to complete. One of the farmers then accidentally got the idea of using castor seeds as an effective trap for the insects.
Some five litre mud pots are buried till the neck at different places in the field, pulverised with about 5kg of castor seed and mixed with five litres of water. The solution was kept undisturbed in a plastic drum for 10 days.
On the 11th day two litres of this liquid is poured in all the buried pots and is filled with water till the neck portion. The odour that comes out from the pot attracts the pest towards it.
In addition to white grub this solution is also found effective to control the notorious rhinoceros beetle that infests coconut trees.
In fact, coconut growers are well aware about the rhino beetle and its damage to fronds and small nuts. This method is a good way of controlling it and does not require a big investment.
The mud pot with the solution needs to be buried near the trunk of the tree and attracted by the odour from the pot the insects come towards it and fall into the pot and die.
Collect the dead insects found floating in the pot once every 2 days and keep filling the pot with solution whenever the quantity gets reduced. The solution can be kept for a period of three months,
Read more: http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/agriculture/fermented-castor-solution-traps-pests-of-sugarcane-groundnut/article4412009.ece
The drop in castor seed prices still continues to make news in blog following the previous blog entry. Poor export enquiries is seen as the reason for the decline in future of castor seed in the oil and oilseeds market. Though castor seed price is on the decline, castor oil commercial and linseed oil traded stable in even in the absence of market moving factors.
Castorseed price declined Rs. 20 per tonne to Rs. 4375. Refined palmolein moved down slightly to Rs. 585. Groundnut oil held steady at Rs. 760 for 10 kg. Castorseed bold, castor oil commercial and linseed oil ended unchanged at Rs. 5,300, Rs. 1,090 and Rs. 710 respectively.
Castorseed futures prices fell by Rs.83 to Rs.4,545 per quintal. This is due to the increased supply in the market and lower industrial demand.
At the National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange, castorseed price for the month of February dropped down by Rs. 83 to Rs.4,545 per quintal, with an open interest of 7,370 lots. Near March-month delivery contract also fell by Rs 70, or 1.61 percent, to Rs 4,277 per quintal, with an open interest of 5,770 lots.
Information obtained from – http://goo.gl/BJzzp
See details of a project on ” Thermoanalytical Characterization of Castor Oil Biodiesel” presented at ScienceDirect in Nov 2005
By: Marta M. Conceição, Roberlúcia A. Candeia, Fernando C. Silva, Aline F. Bezerra, Valter J. Fernandes, Jr. and Antonio G.Souza
The castor oil seed has 47–49% of oil. Biodiesel obtained from castor oil has a lower cost compared to the ones obtained from other oils, as due its solvability in alcohol transesterification occurs without heating. The use of biodiesel will allow a reduction on the consumption of petroleum-derived fuels minimizing the harmful effects on the environment. This work wants to provide a thermoanalytical and physical-chemistry characterization of castor oil and biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained with methyl alcohol and characterized through several techniques. Gas chromatography indicated methyl ester content of 97.7%. The volatilization of biodiesel starts and finishes under inferior temperatures than the beginning and final volatilization temperatures of castor oil. Biodiesel data are very close to the volatilization temperatures of conventional diesel.
Commenting on the technical outlook, Dharmesh Bhatia, associate VP-Research, Kotak Commodities Services said the following:
Castor Seed January prices are trading firm and has made a contract high of Rs 4,439, next level is at Rs 4,650. Unless price closes below Rs 4,110, buying is advisable at Rs 4,310-4,360, with stop loss of Rs4,225 and target of Rs 4,610.