Scientists from Columbia performed an experiment to develop a kinetic model for high CO2 pressure carbonation of epoxidized castor oil which can be used for production of thermoset polymers and non-isocyanate polyurethanes.
Results showed that because of the polyfunctional character of the product, it could find applications as a monomer and as a synthetic building block for other bio-based chemicals.
Researchers from India prepared castor oil polyurethane from pre-polymer oftoluene diisocyanate (TDI) and castor oil with dibutyl tin dilaurate (DBTDL) catalyst. Water was used as blowing agent. The rate of forming was increased by increasing catalyst and water content. On other hand the cell size of the PU decreased with increasing amount of the catalyst and water content.
Characterization studies were performed to analyse the properties of synthesized foam.
Scientists from China synthesized hybrid polyurethanes with double-decker silsesquioxane (DDSQ) using castor oil and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) as feedstock. Double-decker octaphenyl silsesquioxanetetraol (DDSQ) was prepared and characterized by spectroscopy.
Results showed that with the inclusion of DDSQ, the hydrophobicity of the hybrid material was significantly improved.
Cellulose fibre reinforced composites are considered suitable alternative to plastic products due to the environmental problems caused by the latter. However, pure cellulose fibres have a high hydrophilicity. Moreover, the polar character of these fibres causes their low compatibility with partially or totally hydrophobic polymer matrices.
Owing to the poor wettability and adsorbability towards polymers, the surface modification of the fibres surface is essential, in order to improve the fiber/polymer compatibility and their interfacial adhesion. Hence researchers from France conducted a study to improve the properties of cellulose fibres by modifying the cellulose fibres with trialkoxysilane from castor oil.
Characteristic studies were carried out for the modified cellulose-castor oil polyurethane composites. Results showed that compared with the crude cellulose fibres, the organosilane treatment reduced the hydrophilicity of the natural fibres and increased the fiber/matrix compatibility.
Scientists from India performed an experiment where asphalt which is commonly used for road pavement was modified using castor oil based polyurethane to improve the properties of asphalt such as resistance to permanent deformation and to reduce the fatigue.
Polyurethane pre-polymer (PUP) was prepared by using castor oil and toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Asphalt modification was done using castor oil (C.O.) and PUP. Results showed that polymer modified asphalt showed improvement in properties such as hardness and softening point thereby making the pavement application smooth.
Scientists from Korea performed an experiment to fabricate castor oil/PCL based bio-polyurethane foam reinforced with nano cellulose. PU foam based on biomaterials was investigated to replace traditional petroleum-based polyol. Polyols were synthesized from castor oil (CO) and polycaprolactone (PCL). In addition, the effects of the nanocellulose on the thermal and mechanical properties of CO-based PU foam were investigated.
Results showed that addition of the nanocellulose could be an effective way to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of PU foams.
Researchers from Finland have found a method to produce novel castor oil segmented thermoplastic polyurethanes which have controlled mechanical properties.
Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is an elastomer that is fully thermoplastic. Like all thermoplastic elastomers, TPU is elastic and melt-processable. TPU is a linear segmented block copolymer composed of hard and soft segments. The hard segment can be either aromatic or aliphatic. The soft segment can either be a polyether or polyester type, depending on the application.
The new study shows that it is possible to produce thermoplastic polyurethanes using castor oil via polyaddition approach where the formation of prepolymers needs to be carried out with the addition of small amount of castor oil and excess of diisocyanate in the very first step. This is followed by the addition of the other polyols and finally a low molecular weight chain extender.
Results showed that the synthesized polyurethanes exhibited good biocompatibility and high transparency.
Recent study shows that a two-step mediation of castor oil could overcome the problem of polyaddition threshold of castor oil during polyurethane formation.
The study has been conducted by scientists from India who have found that the mediation facilitates formation of polyurethane systems directly from castor oil without the need for triricinolein chain extension or the use of supplementary hydroxyl compounds.
The process involves refluxing castor oil with n-butyl lithium in the presence of a solvent followed by water addition.
Results showed that the mediation introduces two new compounds in castor oil namely, a lithiated diglyceride and a lithium salt of fatty acid. Characterization studies of the newly synthesized polyurethane were also carried out.
Recent study shows production of wood adhesives from castor oil.
Commonly used wood adhesives were anima (hide) glue, urea-formaldehyde resin adhesives, resorcinol-formaldehyde, phenol-formaldehyde, polyurethane, etc.
Now scientists from Iran have conducted an experiment to produce polyester polyols, which is an important compound in polymeric polyurethane adhesives, from castor oil. The polyester polyols were synthesized condensation polymerization of different dicarboxylic acids with castor oil.
Characterization studies were also carried out to determine the shear strength value in various conditions such as cold water, hot water, acid and alkali solutions.
Harvest of castor beans is being carried out in almost all the hamlets in Pachaimalai. The harvest process is being carried out only during late afternoon after allowing the seeds to dry. The oilseed is grown as an intercrop on the boundaries of tapioca farms along with local seeds.
Lack of attractive price for castor had forced the farmers to reduce the area under cultivation. An estimated 40 hectares has been brought under castor cultivation as against 200 hectares till a decade ago.