Biopolyamides market is estimated to grow well in the coming years till 2025. Undecanoic acid and sebacic acid derived from castor oil are among the most dominant raw materials used in the production of bio based polyamide. Owing to the eco logical benefits, bio based polyamides are gaining acceptance and are anticipated to be the fastest growing product segment during the coming years.
Automotives is the largest application segment for polyamide and the trend is expected to continue in the near future. Demand for polyamide in packaging applications is expected to outdo other application segments in terms of growth rate during the coming years.
Scientists from Columbia performed an experiment to develop a kinetic model for high CO2 pressure carbonation of epoxidized castor oil which can be used for production of thermoset polymers and non-isocyanate polyurethanes.
Results showed that because of the polyfunctional character of the product, it could find applications as a monomer and as a synthetic building block for other bio-based chemicals.
Scientists from China synthesized hybrid polyurethanes with double-decker silsesquioxane (DDSQ) using castor oil and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) as feedstock. Double-decker octaphenyl silsesquioxanetetraol (DDSQ) was prepared and characterized by spectroscopy.
Results showed that with the inclusion of DDSQ, the hydrophobicity of the hybrid material was significantly improved.
Cellulose fibre reinforced composites are considered suitable alternative to plastic products due to the environmental problems caused by the latter. However, pure cellulose fibres have a high hydrophilicity. Moreover, the polar character of these fibres causes their low compatibility with partially or totally hydrophobic polymer matrices.
Owing to the poor wettability and adsorbability towards polymers, the surface modification of the fibres surface is essential, in order to improve the fiber/polymer compatibility and their interfacial adhesion. Hence researchers from France conducted a study to improve the properties of cellulose fibres by modifying the cellulose fibres with trialkoxysilane from castor oil.
Characteristic studies were carried out for the modified cellulose-castor oil polyurethane composites. Results showed that compared with the crude cellulose fibres, the organosilane treatment reduced the hydrophilicity of the natural fibres and increased the fiber/matrix compatibility.
Scientists from India performed esterification of furfuryl alcohol and castor oil fatty acid at 3:1 molar ratio, by immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase B in a solvent free system. A maximum yield of ester was obtained. Performance of the FA-COFA ester plasticized Ethyl Cellulose (EC) films were evaluated by certain characteristic studies.
Results showed that the furfuryl alcohol-castor oil fatty acid ester with significant plasticizing property at a certain concentration could act as a substitute for traditional plasticizer dibutyl phthalate.
Scientists from Colombia performed an experiment where a kinetic model was developed for high CO2 pressure carbonation of epoxidized castor oil to be used in the production of thermoset polymers and non-isocyanate polyurethanes.
Carbonated castor oil was produced from the epoxidized oil at 100–130 °C and a constant pressure of CO2 (0.5 MPa). Because the polyfunctional character of the product, it could find applications as monomer and as a synthetic building block for other bio-based chemicals.
Scientists from Korea performed an experiment to fabricate castor oil/PCL based bio-polyurethane foam reinforced with nano cellulose. PU foam based on biomaterials was investigated to replace traditional petroleum-based polyol. Polyols were synthesized from castor oil (CO) and polycaprolactone (PCL). In addition, the effects of the nanocellulose on the thermal and mechanical properties of CO-based PU foam were investigated.
Results showed that addition of the nanocellulose could be an effective way to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of PU foams.
Researchers from Finland have found a method to produce novel castor oil segmented thermoplastic polyurethanes which have controlled mechanical properties.
Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is an elastomer that is fully thermoplastic. Like all thermoplastic elastomers, TPU is elastic and melt-processable. TPU is a linear segmented block copolymer composed of hard and soft segments. The hard segment can be either aromatic or aliphatic. The soft segment can either be a polyether or polyester type, depending on the application.
The new study shows that it is possible to produce thermoplastic polyurethanes using castor oil via polyaddition approach where the formation of prepolymers needs to be carried out with the addition of small amount of castor oil and excess of diisocyanate in the very first step. This is followed by the addition of the other polyols and finally a low molecular weight chain extender.
Results showed that the synthesized polyurethanes exhibited good biocompatibility and high transparency.
Recent study shows that a two-step mediation of castor oil could overcome the problem of polyaddition threshold of castor oil during polyurethane formation.
The study has been conducted by scientists from India who have found that the mediation facilitates formation of polyurethane systems directly from castor oil without the need for triricinolein chain extension or the use of supplementary hydroxyl compounds.
The process involves refluxing castor oil with n-butyl lithium in the presence of a solvent followed by water addition.
Results showed that the mediation introduces two new compounds in castor oil namely, a lithiated diglyceride and a lithium salt of fatty acid. Characterization studies of the newly synthesized polyurethane were also carried out.
Polyanhydrides are a class of biodegradable polymers that are usually unstable and prone to hydrolytic degradation and depolymerisation. They need to be stored at -20°C, packed under inert atmosphere until use.
Now researchers from Israel have found a new stable polyanhydride obtained from sebacic acid and ricinoleic acid. The new stable polyanhydride was synthesized with alternating ester anhydride structure that is stable at 25 °C for over 18 months. The copolymer is also stable in chloroform solution and under γ-irradiation.