Ricinoleic acid, formally called 12-hydroxy-9-cis-octadecenoic acid is a fatty acid. It is an unsaturated omega-9 fatty acid and a hydroxy acid. It is a major component of the seed oil obtained from mature Castor plant (Ricinus communis L.)
Geographically, the Ricinoleic Acid market dominance over North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East & Africa, North America held the majority of the Ricinoleic Acid market share in 2017. Rest of the World is likely to have a limited but steady growth in the Ricinoleic Acid market.
Ricinoleic acid, derived from castor oil has an anti-inflammatory action following topical application. However ricinoleic acid goes rancid when it is exposed to oxygen. Hence scientists from Egypt performed an experiment to encapsulate ricinoleic acid into ethyl cellulose (EC) electrospun fibres. Electrospinning parameters of EC were optimized to obtain bead-free fibres.
RA at different concentrations was encapsulated into EC fibres. Release profile was reported and encapsulation was demonstrated via morphological analysis.
Recent research shows production of jet fuel from ricinoleic acid methyl ester.
Experiments conducted earlier have shown the possibility of producing jet fuel from castor oil or hydro processing castor oil.
Now scientists from China have found that jet fuel could be produced from castor oil derived ricinoleic acid methyl ester. A unique hydroxyl group in the ricinoleic acid chain induced a special thermal rearrangement reaction in medium chain fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and heptanal formation. This reaction was used as a starting point for the production of jet fuel.
Results showed that the carbon selectivity in the castor oil to jet fuel process was as high as 90%.
Polyanhydrides are a class of biodegradable polymers that are usually unstable and prone to hydrolytic degradation and depolymerisation. They need to be stored at -20°C, packed under inert atmosphere until use.
Now researchers from Israel have found a new stable polyanhydride obtained from sebacic acid and ricinoleic acid. The new stable polyanhydride was synthesized with alternating ester anhydride structure that is stable at 25 °C for over 18 months. The copolymer is also stable in chloroform solution and under γ-irradiation.
Here’s an interesting derivative possibility of an antibacterial product from ricinoleic acid, a derivative of castor oil.
Contamination is a big issue in any environment. It affects each and every stage in all the processes we do from manufacturing a product to its maintenance (shelf life). To control contamination, a suitable compound with a high antibacterial activity is to be added in an ongoing process.
A well-known example of compounds with antibacterial activity are naturally occurring phenolic compounds.
Now scientists from India have developed 7 novel ricinoleic acid glycosides having antibacterial activity using Koenigs–Knorr glycosylation reaction. On the whole, 28 ricinoleic acid glycosides were developed and their antibacterial activities were analysed. Seven of them were found to show promising wide spectrum antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria.
Among the 7 compounds, two compounds namely mannopyranosyl- and the arabinofuranosyl derivatives were found to be effective against various non-clinical/clinical, overexpressed/resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and other gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. It was found that the presence of sugar and its structure and the methyl ester protection of the carboxylic moiety of ricinoleic acid are responsible for these compounds to be bioactive.
Now industries looking for other potential compounds with antibacterial activity could go for these ricinoleic acid glycosides.
Wish to know more about Ricinoleic Acid – see here. Or other castor derivatives – see here.
A sealant is an elastomeric material that allows for 25% to 50% movement. They are used to level, fill gaps, seal holes and provide bonding and protection. Sealants are made by using either silicone or polyurethane.
Polyurethane sealants are formed by reacting an isocyanate component with amines, polyols or other active hydrogen compounds. Some polyurethane sealants are flame retardant where flame retardants such as ammonium polyphosphate are used along with the polymers to obtain the desired character. So far, only specialty polyols like polycarbonate polyols, polycaprolactone polyols, polybutadiene polyols, and polysulfide polyols have been used to make polyurethane sealants.
Now, Chinese researchers have developed a novel ricinoleic acid based phosphorus and nitrogen-containing flame retardant polyols (FRPE) for polyurethane sealants. The flame retardant polyols were characterized by different characterization techniques.
Flame retardant polyurethane sealants (FR-PUS) were prepared by curing flame retardant polyols with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI-50). The flame retardant properties of the polyurethane sealants were investigated using limiting oxygen index (LOI), cone calorimeter testing (CCT) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).
Results showed that flame retardant polyols could enhance the thermal stability and flame retardancy of polyurethane sealants without adding any other flame retardant.
Now, industries manufacturing polyurethane sealants could produce them in a renewable way which will be environmental friendly.
Researchers from Tanzania conducted an experiment to stabilize cadmium sulphide quantum dots with the help of castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Cadmium sulphide quantum dots capped with castor oil and ricinoleic acid were prepared and analysed using various characterization techniques.
Results from all the characterization studies confirmed the formation of spherical shaped castor oil and ricinoleic acid capped cadmium sulphide quantum dots.
Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, Germany have elucidated that the EP3 prostanoid receptor is speciﬁcally activated by ricinoleic acid and it mediates the pharmacological effects of castor oil. In mice lacking EP3 receptors, the laxative effect and the uterus contraction induced via ricinoleic acid are absent. Although a conditional deletion of the EP3 receptor gene in intestinal epithelial cells did not affect castor oil-induced diarrhea, mice lacking EP3 receptors only in smooth-muscle cells were unresponsive to this drug. Thus, the castor oil metabolite ricinoleic acid activates intestinal and uterine smooth-muscle cells via EP3 prostanoid receptors. These ﬁndings identify the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological effects of castor oil and indicate a role of the EP3 receptor as a target to induce laxative effects.