Fullerene-castor oil molecular association

Fullerenes are allotropes of carbon holding a centre stage in nanotechnology for its unique physio-chemical properties to exhibit applications which seem to be superior to classical technologies.Scientists from Italy have produced a turning point and found that fullerenes are capable of interacting with lipids of vegetable origin including castor.The significance is that the fullerene-lipid complex is not generated of a mere physical association instead it is  a materialistically transformed chemical reaction where allotropic carbon under study serves as a reductant to covalently bind the spontaneously oxidized castor oil.

The fullerene behaviour was functionally evaluated with a standard solvent against auto-oxidized vegetable oils and found to have a consistency in electron transfer nature.The experiment was repeated with other lipids as well produced from different vegetable sources and an identical reductant activity of fullerene was noticed.Spectrophotometry was the tool applied to analyze the fullerenes chemical activity.

As it is well proved that fullerenes are drivers of nanotechnology and probably any molecule associated with it may present strange applications subjected for exploitation.Surprisingly, the experimental assessment shows castor based lipids as one among the candidate members to display a complex which when characterized at molecular and elemental level would link and expand fullerenes potential in biology.

For reading:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20338159

Some interesting links

Building Energy Analytics

Some Innovative & Unique Solar Power

Unique molecular mechanisms in castor protein mobilization

Castor plant is reported to have an advanced protein molecular machinery for the conversion of storage lipids to carbohydrates mediated through glyoxysomes  to accomplish this process.Carbohydrate bio-synthesis from lipids requires the catalytic function of isocitrate lyase in the glyoxylate cycle whose synthesis occurs in cytolplasm but functional activity is confined to glyoxysomes.The  signal sequences of the enzyme implicated in transportation to its right sub-cellular compartment stand to be a subject of debate as contradictory results have been made so far regarding this phenomenon.To unravel this,researchers have made genetic mutations in sites which is at the carboxy terminus of the enzyme which in its wild type proved to show an homology with standard isoforms from sunflower and Arabidopsis. in vitro studies on the mutant variants of isocitrate lyase revealed an import of the mutant enzyme into glyoxysomes which is further supplemented by the localization of the mutant enzyme in the concerned organelles under in vivo transgenic model lines.

The results turned to be startling for the researchers as they finally concluded that the transportation is driven by hidden signal sequences to be discovered and basically distinct from the members characterized earlier or independent of their experimental sequence.

Isocitrate lyase function is crucial for the plant development andd probing it through genetics and biochemical analysis would enable scientists to have a better understanding of the germination and glycobiology in castor.

For detailed reference:http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/112/4/1457.full.pdf

Consistent surge in castor seed prices

Castor seed prices in the market continue to remain high.Commodity prices stood at Rs:5140 per quintal with an increase of Rs:48 for the future trading in June.NCDEX prices rates for April futures of castor seed also showed a surge with percentage rise of 0.94%.Low arrival of castor seed and an increased demand for oil from abroad make the prices to stay high atleast for the near future.Experts warn of advanced procurements so as to ensure a smooth productive run in castor oil based manufacturing units.

For reading: http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/castorseed-futures-recovershort-covering/130790/&tp=on

Castor protease homologous to microbial forms.

Seed maturation in castor is accompanied by a tremendous degree of pro-protein processing in vacuolar sub-cellular components  with a clear implication for the proteases to generate them functionally active for the expression of this complex developmental  phenomenon in castor life span.Researchers from Japan have identified a novel vacuole processing enzyme which seem to process those inactive pro-proteins in vacuoles.Immunolocalization study was performed to confirm its existence in vacuoles and association with target proteins.Intrestingly,the enzyme as such is inactive after its direct synthesis from ribosomes but later processed to act against pro-proteins.

Further transcript profiling studies  revealed a startling fact that the vacuole processing enzyme from castor bean is analogous in terms of its functional domains to its isoforms present in S.mansoni and E.coli that attributed to its evolutionary relations.

Owing to developments in molecular genetics, identification of proteins  with evolutionary homology is possible on time and without ambiguity.Its medical siginificance is also noticed to a greater height when a suitable inhibitor or a regulatory molecule is devised by exploiting the isoform from castor bean instead of a direct experimentation with pathogen derived enzyme which is tedious to have containment and demanding a technical skill  under most of the circumstances besides our regular study over this protein in castor physiology.

For reference:http://www.plantcell.org/content/5/11/1651.full.pdf

Some interesting links

Building Energy Analytics

Some Innovative & Unique Solar Power

Extreme enzymes noticed in castor beans

Castor chemistry is a complex subject and an extensive focus has been made so far over its lipid components and quantitative magnitude of them.However biochemists have realized well the macromolecular co-ordination at the cellular level to cause the emergence of complex traits that is witnessed at the phenotypic level.This logic stood as one of the basis for persuasion of research in castor enzyme chemistry associated with edible oil metabolism.

Scientists of this study have made a crude enzyme extract,soluble at acidic pH and incubated it with multiple, lipid substrates (reactants)  purified of castor oil origin.They were able to observe a differential hydrolytic activity over the substrates with lipids having short chain saturated and long chain unsaturated fatty acids being catalytically susceptible to a maximum extent which led the researchers to identify acidic lipases in their extract.They further confirmed that their crude extract is infact a lipase mixture through its biased sensitivity to inhibitors and substrates. Enzyme kinetics data  revealed that the enzyme mixture tends to follow a complex order and demand for an external emulsifier to achieve an accelerated catalytic action,proves to be a typical behaviour linked with catabolic lipases.

Experimental research is comprehensive to initiate in-depth enzyme  characterization in multiple biochemical dimensions. It followed a classical pattern in biochemistry so far in molecular profiling of seed materials that has not been studied in the concerned direction in past.Purification and in vitro analytical studies in these acidic lipases would answer their significance in lipid turnover processes in castor beans.

For reference:http://www.jlr.org/content/3/1/99.abstract?related-urls=yes&legid=jlr;3/1/99